Analysis of risk hazards and frequent accidents in

2022-08-24
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Analysis of risk hazards and frequent accidents in construction engineering

construction safety is related to thousands of households and the healthy and orderly development of the construction industry. Nowadays, various large-scale construction projects are increasing, and the application of various new technologies and materials are also emerging in endlessly, which puts forward higher requirements for the safety management and innovation of construction projects. Enterprises have transformed the idea of "quality for life" into "safety for life and quality for development". Combined with my long-term safety work experience, the author talks about some superficial understanding of construction safety

I. Analysis of main risks and hazards of construction projects

1 Excavation procedure

workers engaged in excavation engineering may face the following hazards: Earth and rock fall or collapse during excavation; Overturning of excavation or handling machinery; Accidentally step on a hole in the ground or fall and get injured; Vehicles or machinery fall into ditches and pits, causing workers to be pinched and injured; Accidental accidents caused by touching underground facilities by mistake; Materials or earth rocks that are moved to make the use of products quieter and more durable are injured, bumped or crushed; Excavators or other machinery collide with overhead cables or nearby buildings, causing risks; Workers are injured due to collision with machinery, etc

2. Rebar binding process

workers engaged in rebar binding may face the following occupational hazards: accidents occur when transporting rebar binding, equipment and materials; Due to the operation of the iron cutting machine, the peek filler can be used for up to 3 years, which leads to accidents; When the steel bar binding worker works at high altitude, he accidentally falls from a high place; Accident caused by wrong use of hand tools; When using blower or electric welding to cut or connect reinforcement, we did not pay attention to welding safety measures, resulting in accidents, etc

3. Lifting procedure

workers engaged in lifting work may face the following hazards: materials fall from high altitude during lifting, injuring workers; The lifting machinery is lack of stable support and support, resulting in machinery overturning or collapse; When crane operators lack proper operation and safety training, operating machinery will cause risks and casualty accidents; When the lifting process is carried out in bad weather or typhoon, it is easy to produce risks, etc

4. Workers engaged in scaffolding work may face the following hazards: the scaffolding collapses due to lack of stable support and sufficient strength, causing workers to fall from high places or hurt workers; Workers fall from height and are injured due to wrong methods or insufficient training when building scaffolding; Insufficient safety measures are not designed in the scaffold, such as adding ladder support points, working platforms, guardrails, bottom guards and other equipment to ensure the safety of workers using the scaffold; The scaffolding collapsed and caused casualties due to lack of regular inspection and maintenance, especially in bad weather conditions

5. Dismantlement works

workers engaged in dismantlement works may face the following hazards: fire, explosion, electric shock and other accidents occur when workers dismantle public facilities such as combustible gas, electricity and water pipe supply; The garbage or materials generated during the demolition process fall from a height and hit the public or site staff; When the workers demolished the building, the building collapsed due to unstable structure, hitting the workers, etc

6. Erection or dismantling of temporary supports

workers engaged in erection or dismantling of temporary supports 3. People who unscrew the oil pump switch may face the following occupational hazards: some or all of the temporary supports collapse; Human body or materials fall from high places; Mechanical overturning; Workers are injured by stepping on objects; Electric shock, fire alarm and other hazards occur during welding or cutting; Workers are injured due to collision with machinery or lifting materials

II. Loss analysis of construction safety accidents

1 Economic losses and non economic losses

economic losses include the loss of medical expenses, the value of enterprise equipment, facilities or assets, and the loss of employees' wages and benefits. Non economic losses are very important, such as the loss of life and health, pain and physical and mental torture, the mental loss of the victim's family and society, the loss of people's views on social fairness and stability, and the damage to the goodwill of enterprises. Non economic losses will receive great attention from the government and all sectors of society

2. Fixed loss and variable loss

among economic losses, some are fixed losses, that is, losses that do not change with the change of accident rate or accident level. Such as accident handling costs and insurance management costs of the state or construction administrative departments

at present, most or even all enterprises' insurance premiums are independent of the actual accident level. If accident losses can be allocated to fixed losses through accounting treatment, there will be no incentive for management decision makers to reduce accident risk. Variable loss is the loss that changes with the change of accident rate. In order to enhance the safety production awareness of enterprises, we should establish a variable loss mechanism. For example, at present, Nanshan aluminum has officially become a member of the world's top aviation material supplier club and the first domestic passenger car 4-door two cover aluminum plate manufacturer's insurance rate, the progressive heavy penalty mechanism for the number of accidents, etc., so as to increase the variable loss of enterprises with high accident rate

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